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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

HyperWrite's Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Study Guide is your comprehensive resource for understanding the core principle that connects differential and integral calculus. This guide covers the key concepts, formulas, and applications of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

Introduction to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) is a central result in calculus that establishes the relationship between differentiation and integration. It consists of two parts, which together provide a powerful tool for solving a wide range of problems in mathematics, science, and engineering.

Common Terms and Definitions

Antiderivative: A function whose derivative is equal to a given function.

Indefinite Integral: The set of all antiderivatives of a given function, denoted by ∫f(x)dx.

Definite Integral: The signed area between a function and the x-axis over a specified interval, denoted by ∫ₐᵇf(x)dx.

Riemann Sum: An approximation of the area under a curve using a series of rectangles.

Accumulation Function: A function that represents the definite integral of another function with a variable upper limit.

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The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states that if f is a continuous function on the closed interval [a, b], and F is an antiderivative of f on [a, b], then:

∫ₐᵇf(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)

In other words, the definite integral of a function over an interval can be calculated by evaluating the antiderivative at the endpoints of the interval and taking the difference.

The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states that if f is a continuous function on an open interval containing a, then the function g defined by:

g(x) = ∫ₐˣf(t)dt

is an antiderivative of f on that interval. In other words, the accumulation function of a continuous function is an antiderivative of that function.

Applications of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

  1. Evaluating definite integrals using antiderivatives
  2. Finding the area between curves
  3. Calculating the volume of solids of revolution
  4. Solving initial value problems in differential equations
  5. Analyzing the accumulation of quantities over time

Common Questions and Answers

What is the relationship between differentiation and integration?

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus establishes that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. The first part shows that the definite integral of a function can be calculated using an antiderivative, while the second part demonstrates that the accumulation function of a continuous function is an antiderivative of that function.

How do you evaluate a definite integral using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?

To evaluate a definite integral using the FTC, first find an antiderivative of the integrand. Then, evaluate the antiderivative at the upper and lower limits of integration and subtract the lower value from the upper value.

What is the significance of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?

The FTC is a powerful tool that simplifies the calculation of definite integrals and enables the solution of a wide range of problems in mathematics, science, and engineering. It provides a link between the concepts of differentiation and integration, allowing for a deeper understanding of calculus and its applications.

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Conclusion

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is a cornerstone of calculus, establishing the relationship between differentiation and integration. By understanding the key concepts, formulas, and applications of the FTC, you will be well-equipped to solve a variety of problems and gain a deeper appreciation for the beauty and power of calculus.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Understand the connection between differentiation and integration
How can the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus be used to find the area between two curves?
To find the area between two curves using the FTC, subtract the definite integrals of the lower curve from the upper curve over the interval where the curves intersect. This gives the signed area between the curves.

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