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Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences

HyperWrite's Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences Study Guide is your comprehensive resource for understanding and correcting these common grammatical errors. This guide covers the definitions, examples, and strategies for identifying and fixing sentence fragments and run-on sentences in your writing.

What are Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences?

Sentence fragments and run-on sentences are two common grammatical errors that can make your writing unclear and difficult to understand. A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that lacks a subject, a verb, or both. A run-on sentence, on the other hand, is two or more complete sentences that are incorrectly joined together without proper punctuation or conjunctions.

Common Terms and Definitions

Sentence Fragment: An incomplete sentence that lacks a subject, a verb, or both, and does not express a complete thought.

Run-on Sentence: Two or more complete sentences that are incorrectly joined together without proper punctuation or conjunctions.

Independent Clause: A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence.

Dependent Clause: A group of words that contains a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.

Conjunction: A word that joins words, phrases, or clauses together (e.g., and, but, or, yet, so).

Comma Splice: A type of run-on sentence in which two independent clauses are incorrectly joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction.

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Examples of Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences

Sentence Fragments:

  • Running quickly down the street.
  • Because she was late for class.
  • The book on the shelf.

Run-on Sentences:

  • I love coffee I drink it every morning.
  • She studied hard for the exam, she got an A.
  • He went to the store he bought some groceries he came back home.

Strategies for Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences

Identifying Sentence Fragments:

  1. Check if the sentence has a subject and a verb.
  2. Determine if the sentence expresses a complete thought.
  3. Look for phrases that cannot stand alone as complete sentences.

Correcting Sentence Fragments:

  1. Add a subject, a verb, or both to create a complete sentence.
  2. Combine the fragment with a nearby sentence to form a complete thought.
  3. Rewrite the fragment as a dependent clause and attach it to an independent clause.

Identifying Run-on Sentences:

  1. Check for two or more independent clauses that are not properly separated.
  2. Look for comma splices (two independent clauses joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction).
  3. Identify sentences that are excessively long and contain multiple complete thoughts.

Correcting Run-on Sentences:

  1. Separate the independent clauses with a period and capitalize the first word of the new sentence.
  2. Use a semicolon to join the independent clauses if they are closely related.
  3. Add a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, yet, so) after a comma to join the independent clauses.
  4. Rewrite one of the independent clauses as a dependent clause and join it to the other clause with a subordinating conjunction (e.g., because, although, if, when).

Common Questions and Answers

What is the difference between a sentence fragment and a run-on sentence?

A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that lacks a subject, a verb, or both, while a run-on sentence is two or more complete sentences that are incorrectly joined together without proper punctuation or conjunctions.

How can I tell if a sentence is a fragment?

To determine if a sentence is a fragment, check if it has a subject and a verb and if it expresses a complete thought. If the sentence is missing one or more of these elements, it is likely a fragment.

What are some common ways to fix a run-on sentence?

Common ways to fix a run-on sentence include separating the independent clauses with a period, using a semicolon, adding a coordinating conjunction after a comma, or rewriting one of the independent clauses as a dependent clause and joining it with a subordinating conjunction.

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Conclusion

Sentence fragments and run-on sentences are common grammatical errors that can make your writing unclear and difficult to understand. By learning to identify and correct these errors using the strategies outlined in this study guide, you can improve the clarity and effectiveness of your writing. Remember to always proofread your work and look for opportunities to create complete, well-structured sentences.

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Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences
Learn to identify and correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences
Is this a sentence fragment or a complete sentence? 'Running quickly down the street.'
This is a sentence fragment because it lacks a subject. To correct it, you could add a subject, such as 'He was running quickly down the street.'

Get instant answers to any Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences question and more, with a personal AI tutor.

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